ERIC Number: EJ718720
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004
Reference Count: N/A
"It is Democratic Citizens We Are After:" The Possibilities and the Expectations for the Social Studies From the Writings of Shirley H. Engle
Chilcoat, George W.; Ligon, Jerry A.
International Journal of Social Education, v18 n2 p76-88 Fall-Win 2003-2004
For almost five decades during his professional life, Engle was deeply concerned about the philosophical views that made up social studies education, as well as ways those views were being practiced in the classrooms. In particular, he criticized the philosophical views of two contemporary educators, Edgar Wesley and Jerome Bruner. Wesley believed that social studies was merely a simplified way to organize and teach efficiency in transmitting the body of desired knowledge, concepts and generalizations that make up the various social sciences disciplines presented in elementary and secondary school curricula. Teaching would include primarily teacher-directed use of textbooks, audio-visual aids (e.g., maps, pictures, diagrams, graphs, charts), and well organized lectures. Bruner, on the other hand, posited that the curriculum should imitate real life social science laboratories, allowing students to become miniature social scientists involved in academic inquiry projects as outlined in problem-oriented units found in progressive textbooks, student manuals, and pamphlets. The number of academic units would be limited by the amount of problem-oriented information and the time needed for students to "discover" desired knowledge and inquiry skills. A suggested framework of Engles Curriculum/Instructional Social Studies Project is described in this article.
Descriptors: Social Studies, Curriculum Development, Decision Making, Educational Objectives, Teaching Methods, Student Evaluation, Evaluation Methods, Citizenship Responsibility
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A