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ERIC Number: EJ710990
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Mar-1
Pages: N/A
Abstractor: ERIC
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0031-7217
Rethinking Inclusion: Schoolwide Applications
Sailor, Wayne; Roger, Blair
Phi Delta Kappan, v86 n7 p503 Mar 2005
As a field, special education presents an excellent case study of the paradox of differentiation and integration, wherein we seek solutions through increased specialization but, in so doing, we redefine a problem in terms of discrete parts at the expense of the whole. As Thomas Skrtic pointed out more than a decade ago, a large and ever-widening gap exists between the purpose of special education -- to provide needed supports, services, adaptations, and accommodations to students with disabilities in order to preserve and enhance their educational participation in the least restrictive environment -- and its practice. And that practice has evolved over three decades into a parallel and highly differentiated educational structure, often with only loosely organized connections to the general education system. "Inclusion" is usually regarded as the placement of special education students in general education settings. In this article, the authors present a new vision of integrated education, in which previously specialized adaptations and strategies are used to enhance the learning of all students.
Phi Delta Kappa International, Inc., 408 N. Union St., P.O. Box 789, Bloomington, IN 47402-0789. Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California; Kansas
Identifiers - Laws, Policies, & Programs: Individuals with Disabilities Education Act; No Child Left Behind Act 2001