ERIC Number: EJ698965
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004-Apr
Behavior Change and Perceptions of Change: Evaluating the Effectiveness of a Token Economy
Reitman, David, Ph.D.
Child and Family Behavior Therapy, v26 n2 p17-36 Apr 2004
Token economies often reduce problematic classroom behavior in preschool settings. In the present study, direct observation and teacher ratings of child behavior and treatment acceptability were utilized to evaluate the effectiveness of a token economy in a Head Start classroom. Because many teachers express concerns about the effort required to implement and maintain token systems, this study compared the relative efficacies of group and individualized contingency management programs. Direct observation data for three children revealed that both the individual and group contingency were superior to a baseline condition in which no systematic behavior management program was utilized. In addition, the whole group contingency was generally as effective as the individual contingency. However, despite reductions in classroom rule violations for the three target children, the acceptability of the token program was variable and little change was observed in the teacher's ratings of their behavior. The results suggest the ongoing need for multiple measures of treatment outcome (e.g., teacher and student ratings of acceptability and effectiveness, direct observation) even for empirically supported school-based interventions.
Descriptors: Program Effectiveness, Disadvantaged Youth, Student Behavior, Observation, Child Behavior, Contingency Management, Behavior Change, Token Economy
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Publication Type: Journal Articles
Education Level: N/A
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