NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ697806
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2005-Apr
Pages: 21
Abstractor: Author
Reference Count: N/A
ISSN: ISSN-0361-476X
What Limits the Encoding Effect of Note-Taking? A Meta-Analytic Examination
Kobayashi, K.
Contemporary Educational Psychology, v30 n2 p242-262 Apr 2005
Previous meta-analyses indicate that the overall encoding effect of note-taking is positive but modest. This meta-analysis of 57 note-taking versus no note-taking comparison studies explored what limits the encoding effect by examining the moderating influence of seven variables: intervention, schooling level, presentation mode and length, test mode, and publication year and source. It was found that (a) either positive interventions or rise in schooling level did not enhance the benefits of note-taking; (b) visual presentation of learning material interfered with the note-taking process, whereas longer presentation did not; (c) recall test detected the encoding effect more than recognition and higher-order performance tests; and (d) publication year and source contributed to the variation in effect sizes. These results suggest that the modest encoding effect is not due to the incompleteness of students' spontaneous note-taking procedures, but mechanical demands of note-taking, type of learning outcome measure, and publication characteristics.
Elsevier Customer Service Department, 6277 Sea Harbor Drive, Orlando, FL 32887-4800. Tel: 877-839-7126 (Toll Free); Fax: 407-363-1354; e-mail:
Publication Type: Journal Articles
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: N/A
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A