ERIC Number: EJ681793
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2004-Jul
Reference Count: 0
Democratization or Neocolonialism? The Education of Muslims under US Military Occupation, 1903-20
Milligan, Jeffrey Ayala
History of Education, v33 n4 p451-467 Jul 2004
Recent events in Afghanistan and Iraq appear to mark the beginning of a new and challenging relationship between the United States and the Muslim world. As the US embarks upon its self-appointed task of helping to bring about the development of peaceful, democratic civil societies in Islamic nations wracked by decades of war, ethnic strife and political oppression, it may prove instructive to reflect on earlier US efforts to foster democratic social development through education of Muslim communities under US military and civilian occupation. This essay proposes to examine the use and consequences of educational policy to foster development and democratic self-governance of Muslims under US rule in the southern Philippines between 1903 and 1920. This case, which occurred precisely one century ago, offers important insights into the ways in which culturally and historically constructed discursive lenses shape both the construction and interpretation of development policies and thus profoundly complicate efforts to introduce Western conceptions of modern democratic society in Muslim communities. It shows how such discursive lenses distorted publicly avowed aims of democratization into a neocolonial relationship between the US and an independent Philippines and an internal colonial relationship between the Philippine government and its Muslim minority characterized, in both cases, by continuing 'economic and social relations of dependency and control' by the former colonial power. The experience, offers a cautionary tale for contemporary US social agendas in the Muslim world.
Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Social Development, Educational Policy, Democracy, Muslims, Foreign Policy
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Opinion Papers
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A