ERIC Number: EJ663870
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2002
The Color of Discipline: Sources of Racial and Gender Disproportionality in School Punishment.
Skiba, Russell J.; Michael, Robert S.; Nardo, Abra Carroll; Peterson, Reece L.
Urban Review, v34 n4 p317-42 Dec 2002
Examined middle school disciplinary data in one urban school regarding three common hypotheses about disproportionate discipline based on gender, race, and socioeconomic status. Racial and gender disparities in office referrals, suspensions, and expulsions were somewhat more robust than socioeconomic differences. Boys engaged more frequently in a broad range of disruptive behavior than girls. Racial disproportionality in school suspension originated primarily at the classroom level. (Contains references.) (SM)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A
IES Cited: ED492093; ED545227; ED544770; ED558158; ED544799; ED565704