ERIC Number: EJ422202
Record Type: CIJE
Publication Date: 1988
Reference Count: 0
Symbolic Validation: The Case of State-Mandated, High-Stakes Testing.
Airasian, Peter W.
Educational Evaluation and Policy Analysis, v10 n4 p301-13 Win 1988
High-stakes state-mandated testing programs are discussed, illustrating that proposed educational innovations are adopted because of their power as symbols of value orientations in the wider culture. In such programs, tests represent order and control, focus on important outcomes, and symbolize basic moral values. (SLD)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A