ERIC Number: EJ399775
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 1989
Reference Count: N/A
Potential Biases in Leadership Measures: How Prototypes, Leniency, and General Satisfaction Relate to Ratings and Rankings of Transformational and Transactional Leadership Constructs.
Bass, Bernard M.; Avolio, Bruce J.
Educational and Psychological Measurement, v49 n3 p509-27 Fall 1989
Eighty-seven employed people completed a graphic rating or a forced ranking questionnaire describing their immediate superiors. Transformational and transactional leadership constructs were examined in relation to the participant's leadership prototype, leniency in rating, and general satisfaction. Overall, forced ranking yielded more independent assessment of transactional and transformational leadership. (SLD)
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A