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ERIC Number: EJ1351519
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2022
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
EISSN: EISSN-1538-4780
Co-Occurrence of Reading and Writing Difficulties: The Application of the Interactive Dynamic Literacy Model
Kim, Young-Suk Grace
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v55 n6 p447-464 Nov-Dec 2022
This article presents the application of the interactive dynamic literacy (IDL) model (Kim, 2020b) toward understanding difficulties in learning to read and write. According to the IDL model, reading and writing are part of communicative acts that draw on largely shared processes and skills as well as unique processes and skills. As such, reading and writing are dissociable but interdependent systems that have hierarchical, interactive, and dynamic relations. These key tenets of the IDL model are applied to the disruption of reading and writing development to explain co-occurrence of reading-writing difficulties using a single framework. The following hypotheses are presented: (a) co-occurrence between word reading and spelling and handwriting difficulties; (b) co-occurrence of dyslexia with written composition difficulties; (c) co-occurrence between reading comprehension and written composition difficulties; (d) co-occurrence of language difficulties with reading difficulties and writing difficulties; (e) co-occurrence of reading, writing, and language difficulties with weak domain-general skills or executive functions such as working memory and attentional control (including attention-deficit/ hyperactivity disorder [ADHD]); and (f) multiple pathways for reading and writing difficulties. Implications are discussed. [For the corresponding grantee submission, see ED618728.]
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED); Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (DHHS/NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305A130131; R305A170113; R305A180055; R305A200312; R305C190007; P50HD052120