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ERIC Number: EJ1219059
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2019
Pages: 10
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1559-663X
Three Interactive Alternatives for Developing Reading Fluency
Myskow, Gordon
English Teaching Forum, v51 n2 p2-11 2019
According to I.S. P. Nation (2009, 66), four conditions must be present for an activity to be categorized as fluency development: (1) learners' attention must be focused on the meaning of the text they are reading rather than its grammatical or structural features; (2) here should be no new vocabulary and few irregular language features in the passages. Thus, the reading "material should be easy" for learners (Nation 2009, 66); (3) there needs to "be some pressure to perform at a faster than normal speed" (Nation 2009, 66); and (4) fluency-based practice needs to occur regularly; that is, there should be a large quantity of input/output. This article presents three reading activities ("Start-up!," "Pop-up!," and "End-up!") that are designed to meet Nation's (2009) four conditions for fluency development. The step-by-step procedures for each activity are illustrated by using a short sample text consisting of two paragraphs. The activities are highly interactive and can be used to focus on different reading skills such as identifying specific information, comprehending main ideas, and predicting/ inferencing. These activities require no additional materials beyond the course textbook and handouts developed by the teacher.
US Department of State. Bureau of Educational and Cultural Affairs, Office of English Language Programs, SA-5, 2200 C Street NW 4th Floor, Washington, DC 20037. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A