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ERIC Number: EJ1180094
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0192-401X
Making Friends with the Present Perfect
Gavell, Mina
ORTESOL Journal, v35 p4-16 2018
While the present perfect is difficult for English Language Learners (ELLs) to master, this study seeks to provide evidence of its integral pragmatic function in the social task of initiating and developing relationships. Through analysis of the Santa Barbara Corpus of Spoken American English, the frequency of the present perfect, the pragmatic functions of the present perfect, and its ease of replacement with the simple past are examined. Results show that while the present perfect does occur somewhat more often when developing a friendship, there were no significant patterns in how the present perfect is used. It was also found that though it is rarely necessary to use the present perfect rather than the simple past, a speaker's choice to do so has important pragmatic implications.
Oregon Teachers of English to Speakers of Other Languages. PO Box 15148, Portland, OR 97293. e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California (Santa Barbara)
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A