NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1179097
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018-Jun
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1040-726X
The Relative Merits of Explicit and Implicit Learning of Contrasted Algebra Principles
Ziegler, Esther; Edelsbrunner, Peter A.; Stern, Elsbeth
Educational Psychology Review, v30 n2 p531-558 Jun 2018
Knowledge representations that result from practicing problem solving can be expected to differ from knowledge representations that emerge from explicit verbalizing of principles and rules. We examined the degree to which the two types of learning improve problem-solving knowledge and verbal explanation knowledge in classroom instruction. We presented algebraic addition and multiplication problems to 153 sixth graders randomly assigned to two conditions. Students in the explicit learning condition had to verbally compare contrasted algebra problems. Students in the implicit learning condition had to generate and solve new problems. On three follow-up tests over 10 weeks, students in the explicit learning condition exhibited better problem-solving knowledge than students in the implicit learning condition, as well as some advantages in verbal concept knowledge. Implicit learning showed some advantages on not directly taught but incidentally learned aspects. Overall, this outcome favors the explicit learning of concepts. Explicit comparison fostered student performance on non-verbal and verbal measures, indicating that verbalization facilitates effective comparison.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 6
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A