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ERIC Number: EJ1176231
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018-Apr
Pages: 8
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1532-8759
Recess: A Study of Belongingness, Affect, and Victimization on the Playground
McNamara, Lauren; Lodewyk, Ken; Franklin, Nicole
Children & Schools, v40 n2 p114-121 Apr 2018
Although it is well understood that relationships are linked to healthy development and academic success, research on socialization during recess is limited. From the conceptual framework of belonging, an array of established measures was used to create an online anonymous survey specific to recess. This survey includes modified scales for belongingness, affect, and victimization and discrete items about the social and physical setting. The survey was completed by 520 students from grades 4 through 8. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed an excellent fit of the belongingness scale to the data. Victimization related inversely to belongingness and positive affect and predicted negative affect and low belongingness. The article concludes with implications and recommendations for researchers and school-based professionals.
Oxford University Press. Great Clarendon Street, Oxford, OX2 6DP, UK. Tel: +44-1865-353907; Fax: +44-1865-353485; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A