NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1170588
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018-Apr
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0013-1644
A Multilevel Bifactor Approach to Construct Validation of Mixed-Format Scales
Wang, Yan; Kim, Eun Sook; Dedrick, Robert F.; Ferron, John M.; Tan, Tony
Educational and Psychological Measurement, v78 n2 p253-271 Apr 2018
Wording effects associated with positively and negatively worded items have been found in many scales. Such effects may threaten construct validity and introduce systematic bias in the interpretation of results. A variety of models have been applied to address wording effects, such as the correlated uniqueness model and the correlated traits and correlated methods model. This study presents the multilevel bifactor approach to handling wording effects of mixed-format scales used in a multilevel context. The Students Confident in Mathematics scale is used to illustrate this approach. Results from comparing a series of models showed that positive and negative wording effects were present at both the within and the between levels. When the wording effects were ignored, the within-level predictive validity of the Students Confident in Mathematics scale was close to that under the multilevel bifactor model. However, at the between level, a lower validity coefficient was observed when ignoring the wording effects. Implications for applied researchers are discussed.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 8
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Trends in International Mathematics and Science Study
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A