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ERIC Number: EJ1170381
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2018-Feb
Pages: 3
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0021-9584
Introducing a Simple Equation to Express Oxidation States as an Alternative to Using Rules Associated with Words Alone
Minkiewicz, Piotr; Darewicz, Malgorzata; Iwaniak, Anna
Journal of Chemical Education, v95 n2 p340-342 Feb 2018
A simple equation to calculate the oxidation states (oxidation numbers) of individual atoms in molecules and ions may be introduced instead of rules associated with words alone. The equation includes two of three categories of bonds, classified as proposed by Goodstein: number of bonds with more electronegative atoms and number of bonds with less electronegative atoms. Formal charge of a given atom is also taken into account in agreement with IUPAC recommendations. The equation provides a new (not described to date) way to work with the commonly used rules of oxidation state calculation, and presents an interesting opportunity for studying the redox reaction.
Division of Chemical Education, Inc and ACS Publications Division of the American Chemical Society. 1155 Sixteenth Street NW, Washington, DC 20036. Tel: 800-227-5558; Tel: 202-872-4600; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A