ERIC Number: EJ1168952
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Abstractor: As Provided
Evidence-Based Reading and Writing Assessment for Dyslexia in Adolescents and Young Adults
Nielsen, Kathleen; Abbott, Robert; Griffin, Whitney; Lott, Joe; Raskind, Wendy; Berninger, Virginia W.
Learning Disabilities: A Multidisciplinary Journal, v21 n1 p38-56 2016
The same working memory and reading and writing achievement phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variants) validated in prior research with younger children and older adults in a multi-generational family genetics study of dyslexia were used to study 81 adolescent and young adults (ages 16 to 25) from that study. Dyslexia is impaired word reading and spelling skills below the population mean and ability to use oral language to express thinking. These working memory predictor measures were given and used to predict reading and writing achievement: Coding (storing and processing) heard and spoken words (phonological coding), read and written words (orthographic coding), base words and affixes (morphological coding), and accumulating words over time (syntax coding); Cross-Code Integration (phonological loop for linking phonological name and orthographic letter codes and orthographic loop for linking orthographic letter codes and finger sequencing codes), and "Supervisory Attention" (focused and switching attention and self-monitoring during written word finding). Multiple regressions showed that most predictors explained individual difference in at least one reading or writing outcome, but which predictors explained unique variance beyond shared variance depended on outcome. ANOVAs confirmed that research-supported criteria for dyslexia validated for younger children and their parents could be used to diagnose which adolescents and young adults did (n = 31) or did not (n = 50) meet research criteria for dyslexia. Findings are discussed in reference to the heterogeneity of phenotypes (behavioral markers of genetic variables) and their application to assessment for accommodations and ongoing instruction for adolescents and young adults with dyslexia.
Descriptors: Evidence Based Practice, Reading Achievement, Writing Evaluation, Dyslexia, Adolescents, Young Adults, Short Term Memory, Predictor Variables, Writing Achievement, Phonology, Decoding (Reading), Orthographic Symbols, Morphology (Languages), Syntax, Attention Control, Multiple Regression Analysis, Spelling, Genetics, Achievement Tests, Cognitive Tests, Reading Tests
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Woodcock Johnson Psycho Educational Battery; Wechsler Individual Achievement Test; Wide Range Achievement Test; Woodcock Reading Mastery Test
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A