NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1168204
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 4
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1948-5123
A National Inquiry of Mountain Bikers: Applying the Benefits of Hiking Scale
Hill, Eddie; Wygant, Ben; Smith, Brian; Gómez, Edwin
Journal of Outdoor Recreation, Education, and Leadership, v9 n2 p258-261 2017
Mountain biking is currently one of the fastest growing recreational activities in the world (Outdoor Foundation, 2013), but documenting the benefits has been challenging. The Benefits of Hiking Scale (BHS), a 38-item instrument assessing the values and benefits of using trails, has been used in national and state park trail research (Freidt, Hill, Gómez, Goldenberg, & Hill, 2010; Hill et al., 2014). The BHS is theoretically grounded, reflecting Gutman's (1982) means-end theory and reflecting Driver's (1998) leisure benefits. Gutman identified three key concepts within means-end: "attributes," "consequences," and "values." Means-end theory links the physical objects (e.g., trail) and the means with the outcomes/personal values (e.g., health) of the individual, the ends (Klenosky, Frauman, Norman, & Gengler, 1998). A benefit of leisure, as defined by Driver (2008), is an outcome that causes (a) a change resulting in a more desirable condition (improvement) over a previous existing state, (b) the continuance of a desired condition in order to prevent an undesired condition from occurring, or (c) the realization of a satisfying (psychological) experience with regard to recreation. Research demonstrating objective, measurable benefits is needed to justify funding, advocate for and guide the development of new facilities, improve best practices for management and programming, and increase participation (Driver, 2008). Empirical evidence of health benefits is also instrumental in positioning and promoting recreation and parks as a means to address current public issues, especially those related to health and quality of life. Recreation professionals should not assume that recreation is inherently rewarding, but instead should identify and measure outcomes (Allen & Cooper, 2003). The purpose of this study was to examine findings associated with mountain biking in the United States by using a modified BHS.
Sagamore Publishing LLC. 1807 North Federal Drive, Urbana, IL 61801. Tel: 800-327-5557; Tel: 217-359-5940; Fax: 217-359-5975; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A