NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1167978
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015-Jun
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1045-3830
Measuring Annual Growth Using Written Expression Curriculum-Based Measurement: An Examination of Seasonal and Gender Differences
Keller-Margulis, Milena A.; Mercer, Sterett H.; Payan, Anita; McGee, Wendy
School Psychology Quarterly, v30 n2 p276-288 Jun 2015
The purpose of this study was to examine annual growth patterns and gender differences in written expression curriculum-based measurement (WE-CBM) when used in the context of universal screening. Students in second through fifth grade (n = 672) from 2 elementary schools that used WE-CBM as a universal screener participated in the study. Student writing samples were scored for production-dependent, production-independent, and accurate-production indicators. Results of latent growth models indicate that for most WE-CBM outcome indicators across most grade levels, average growth was curvilinear, with increasing curvilinearity on all indicators as grade level increased. Evidence of gender differences was mixed with girls having higher initial scores on all WE-CBM indicators except for total words written (second and third grades), correct minus incorrect writing sequences (fourth grade only), and percent correct writing sequences (second-fourth grades) where differences were not statistically significant. Despite differences in initial level, there were few gender differences in growth and limited overall between-student variability in linear slope. The results of this study extend research on annual patterns of growth and gender differences in WE-CBM by analyzing all 3 types of WE-CBM indicators, including upper elementary grades, and assessing skills more frequently (i.e., 4 to 5 times in 1 year) than in prior research on annual growth. The findings have implications for universal screening in WE-CBM and for understanding gender differences in writing performance.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A