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ERIC Number: EJ1166895
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Jan
Pages: 11
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-1756-1108
Characterizing Illusions of Competence in Introductory Chemistry Students
Pazicni, Samuel; Bauer, Christopher F.
Chemistry Education Research and Practice, v15 n1 p24-34 Jan 2014
The Dunning-Kruger effect is a cognitive bias that plagues a particular population of students--the unskilled. This population suffers from illusory competence, as determined by inaccurate ratings of their own ability/performance. These mistakenly high self-ratings (i.e. ''illusions of competence'') are typically explained by a metacognitive deficiency of the unskilled--they simply can't recognize their own mistakes. This work, involving more than a thousand students, nine course sections, and sampling multiple time points over a semester, established the Dunning-Kruger effect as a robust phenomenon in university-level introductory chemistry. Using a combination of graphical analyses and hierarchical linear modeling, we confirmed that low-performing students tend to overestimate their own performance while high-performing students tend to underestimate their performance. We also observed a clear difference between female and male students with regard to these miscalibrations. Lastly, we demonstrated that student miscalibrations are invariant over time, a result that has profound implications for the types of instructor feedback conventionally provided in introductory chemistry courses.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A