NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1165032
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1947-380X
Frequency of Leadership Behaviors among Athletic Trainers in University Settings
Kutz, Matthew R.; Doherty-Restrepo, Jennifer
Athletic Training Education Journal, v12 n3 p165-178 Jul-Sep 2017
Context: Leadership has been reported to be an important factor in the practice of athletic training. However, no research has identified the frequency in which leadership is practiced by athletic trainers. Objective: To explore and compare the frequency with which athletic trainers practice leadership in their athletic training and non-athletic training roles. Setting: Survey design using athletic trainers in clinical and academic roles. Patients or Other Participants: One hundred one athletic trainers in university settings (69% program directors; 31% university-based clinicians), yielding a 12% response rate and a satisfactory effect size (d = 0.73); mean age of respondents was 41 ± 9.5 years, mean experience was 18 ± 9.0 years, and 98% of respondents had at least a master's degree. Main Outcome Measure(s): Frequency of leadership behavior by athletic trainers was assessed using the Frequency of Leadership in Athletic Training Scale (FLATS). Data on frequency of use were organized by different demographic variables and between athletic training roles and non-athletic training roles. Results: The FLATS psychometric analysis yielded satisfactory internal consistency and validity (a = 0.91 to 0.96; correlations ranged from r = 0.39 to r = 0.87, P = 0.05; concurrent validity was supported by differences between scale items and selected demographic characteristics). Paired-samples t tests indicated significant differences between practice frequencies of leadership behaviors in athletic training roles when compared with out of athletic training roles (mean = 2.24 ± 0.33 versus 1.98 ± 0.38, P = 0.000). Furthermore, mean scores for 44 (of 47) FLATS items were significantly higher for in versus out of athletic training roles (P = 0.05). Independent t tests showed significant differences between specific item frequencies among different variables (ranges: t[subscript 43-99] = -3.290 to 3.339, P = 0.001 to 0.05). Conclusions: A majority (85%) of leadership behaviors are practiced frequently (often or always) by athletic trainers. Frequency of leadership behavior by athletic trainers decreases when they are not functioning in an athletic training context.
National Athletic Trainers' Association. 2952 Stemmons Freeway Suite 200, Dallas, TX 75247. Tel: 214-637-6282; Fax: 214-637-2206; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A