NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
PDF on ERIC Download full text
ERIC Number: EJ1164944
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 19
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1949-1212
The Impact of Explicit Timing, Immediate Feedback, and Positive Reinforcement on the Writing Outcomes of Academically and Behaviorally Struggling Fifth-Grade Students
Grünke, Matthias; Sperling, Marko; Burke, Mack D.
Insights into Learning Disabilities, v14 n2 p135-153 2017
The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of a multicomponent intervention on the length and quality of stories written by fifth graders who were academically and behaviorally struggling with particular problems during writing demands. Difficulties in text production are often prevalent at the beginning of middle/secondary education as students transition from elementary school. These writing problems need to be addressed to avoid negative long-term consequences in school and everyday life. The intervention in this study included explicit timing, immediate feedback (through a self-scoring procedure), and positive reinforcement (through verbal praise as well as display of high scores and use of charts to illustrate learning progress). Four fifth graders with learning and behavioral difficulties participated in the study. A functional relationship between the treatment and the outcomes (story length and quality) was established using an AB multiple-baseline-across-subjects design with repeated measures in follow-up. These findings and their implications are discussed in the context of improving the writing performance of academically and behaviorally struggling students.
Learning Disabilities Worldwide, Inc. 14 Nason Street, Maynard, MA 01754. Tel: 978-897-5399; Fax: 978-897-5355; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 5
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Germany
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A