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ERIC Number: EJ1160515
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1941-1243
Handwriting in Lebanese Bigraphic Children: Standardization of the BHK Scale
Matta Abizeid, Carla; Tabsh Nakib, Amira; Younès Harb, Céleste; Ghantous Faddoul, Shereen; Albaret, Jean-Michel
Journal of Occupational Therapy, Schools & Early Intervention, v10 n4 p420-435 2017
Educational systems in Lebanon are bilingual. They simultaneously impose two handwriting systems in Arabic and Latin. This historically driven situation could constitute a significant impact on the process and development of handwriting skills. Using an accurate and valid handwriting evaluation tool standardized for the Lebanese population is a necessity. This study presents normative and discriminant data for the Concise Evaluation Scale for Children's Handwriting (BHK) in Lebanese children, followed by a comparison to the BHK norms developed in France with unilingual children. The BHK was standardized with a sample of 763 Lebanese children from grades 1 to 5. Four trained raters were involved in the data collection. Data analysis addressed the development of norms, reliability, and pilot administration of discriminant validity. The BHK differentiates between Lebanese children with and without handwriting difficulties. In those without handwriting difficulties, the number of letters written in 5 minutes and writing proficiency increases throughout the first five school years and are gender related, favoring the girls. Lebanese children display better handwriting proficiency than French children, except for the handwriting quality that develops better among French children as of Grade 2. The BHK is a promising tool for the detection of dysgraphia and poor handwriting in Lebanese children.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Lebanon; France
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A