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ERIC Number: EJ1158320
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Oct
Pages: 26
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Early Intervention for Children at Risk for Reading Disabilities: The Impact of Grade at Intervention and Individual Differences on Intervention Outcomes
Lovett, Maureen W.; Frijters, Jan C.; Wolf, Maryanne; Steinbach, Karen A.; Sevcik, Rose A.; Morris, Robin D.
Journal of Educational Psychology, v109 n7 p889-914 Oct 2017
Across multiple schools and sites, the impact of grade-at-intervention was evaluated for children at risk or meeting criteria for reading disabilities. A multiple-component reading intervention with demonstrated efficacy was offered to small groups of children in 1st, 2nd, or 3rd grade. In a quasi-experimental design, 172 children received the Triple-Focus Program (PHAST + RAVE-O), and 47 were control participants. Change during intervention and 1-3 years later (6-8 testing points), and the influence of individual differences in predicting outcomes, were assessed using reading and reading-related repeated measures. Intervention children out-performed control children at posttest on all 14 outcomes, with average effect sizes (Cohen's d) on standardized measures of 0.80 and on experimental measures of 1.69. On foundational word reading skills (standardized measures), children who received intervention earlier, in 1st and 2nd grade, made gains relative to controls almost twice that of children receiving intervention in 3rd grade. At follow-up, the advantage of 1st grade intervention was even clearer: First graders continued to grow at faster rates over the follow-up years than 2nd graders on 6 of 8 reading outcomes. For some outcomes with metalinguistic demands beyond the phonological, however, a posttest advantage was revealed for 2nd Grade Triple participants and for 3rd Grade Triple participants relative to controls. Estimated IQ predicted growth during intervention on 7 of 8 outcomes. Growth during follow-up was predicted by vocabulary and visual sequential memory. These findings provide evidence on the importance of early intensive evidence-based intervention for reading problems in the primary grades.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 1
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Eunice Kennedy Shriver National Institute of Child Health and Human Development (NICHD) (NIH)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Georgia (Atlanta); Massachusetts (Boston); Canada (Toronto)
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Kaufman Brief Intelligence Test; Woodcock Reading Mastery Test; Wide Range Achievement Test; Gray Oral Reading Test; Peabody Individual Achievement Test; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Wechsler Intelligence Scales Short Forms
Grant or Contract Numbers: HD30970