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ERIC Number: EJ1156538
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Nov
Pages: 20
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0731-9487
Intensive Reading Interventions for Inadequate Responders in Grades K-3: A Synthesis
Austin, Christy R.; Vaughn, Sharon; McClelland, Amanda M.
Learning Disability Quarterly, v40 n4 p191-210 Nov 2017
A subset of students fail to respond adequately to reading interventions. This synthesis systematically reviews studies in which students in grades K-3 responded inadequately to a Tier 2 reading intervention and were provided with a Tier 3 intervention. Descriptions of the Tier 3 reading interventions and effects are provided. To meet inclusion criteria, studies were required to (a) provide documented, multi-tiered reading interventions with at least one reading outcome measured; (b) include students in grades K-3 who previously responded inadequately to a Tier 2 intervention; (c) use experimental, quasi-experimental, or multiple-group designs; and (d) be peer reviewed and conducted in English. Twelve studies met inclusion criteria. Results demonstrate that students who responded inadequately to Tier 2 interventions can make significant growth from Tier 3 interventions compared with a control group of peers who were also inadequate responders, but often fail to catch up to their more responsive peers.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: Early Childhood Education; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Office of Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Woodcock Reading Mastery Test; Dynamic Indicators of Basic Early Literacy Skills (DIBELS); Woodcock Johnson Tests of Achievement
Grant or Contract Numbers: H325H140001