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ERIC Number: EJ1156227
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0279-6015
Interrelations of Growth in Letter Naming and Sound Fluency in Kindergarten and Implications for Subsequent Reading Fluency
Clemens, Nathan H.; Lai, Mark H. C.; Burke, Mack; Wu, Jiun-Yu
School Psychology Review, v46 n3 p272-287 2017
Although letter naming fluency (LNF) and letter sound fluency (LSF) measures are widely available to educators for assessing early literacy skills of kindergarten children, better understanding of the contributions of these skills to reading development can help improve the interpretation of LNF and LSF data for instructional decisions. This study investigated the interrelations of growth in LNF and LSF across the kindergarten year and their unique roles in predicting later reading fluency. Piecewise parallel-process growth models indicated that although LNF and LSF were highly correlated at kindergarten entry, fall LNF status was positively predictive of LSF growth across the fall. Bidirectional effects were present, as initial LSF was also a positive predictor of LNF growth across the fall; however, its effects were not as strong as those of initial LNF on LSF growth. More importantly, both initial status and growth in LNF and LSF were uniquely predictive of first-grade reading fluency, indicating the independent effects of each on subsequent text reading skills. Indirect effects were also observed for kindergarten LNF and LSF growth on reading fluency in second and third grades. Implications for kindergarten assessment and instruction are discussed.
National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Tel: 301-657-0270; Fax: 301-657-0275; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Kindergarten
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A