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ERIC Number: EJ1154970
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1947-8518
Effects of Virtual Manipulatives on Student Achievement and Mathematics Learning
Moyer-Packenham, Patricia S.; Westenskow, Arla
International Journal of Virtual and Personal Learning Environments, v4 n3 Article 3 p35-50 2013
This paper is a meta-analysis that synthesizes the findings from 66 research reports examining the effects of virtual manipulatives on student achievement. Of the 66 reports, 32 contained data yielding 82 effect size scores with effects of virtual manipulatives on student achievement. The 66 reports also contributed to a conceptual analysis of affordancesthat promote mathematical learning. The results of the averaged effect size scores yielded a moderate effect for virtual manipulatives comparedwith other instructional treatments. There were additional large, moderate, and small effects when virtual manipulatives were compared with physical manipulatives and textbook instruction, and when the effects were examined by mathematical domains, grade levels, and study duration. The results of the conceptual analysis revealed empirical evidence that five specific interrelated affordances of virtual manipulatives (VMs) promoted mathematical learning. These five specific researcher-reported affordances included focused constraint (i.e., VMs focus and constrain student attention on mathematical objects and processes), creative variation (i.e., VMs encourage creativity and increase the variety of students'solutions), simultaneous linking (i.e., VMs simultaneously link representations with each other and with students' actions), efficient precision (i.e., VMs contain precise representations allowing accurate and efficient use), and motivation (i.e., VMs motivate students to persist at mathematical tasks)
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A