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ERIC Number: EJ1150546
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 6
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1068-6177
Using Concrete Manipulatives in Mathematical Instruction
Jones, Julie P.; Tiller, Margaret
Dimensions of Early Childhood, v45 n1 p18-23 2017
Concrete, Representational, Abstract (CRA) instruction is a process for teaching and learning mathematical concepts. Starting with manipulation of concrete materials (counters, beans, Unifix cubes), the process moves students to the representational level (tallies, dots, stamps), and peaks at the abstract level, at which numbers and symbols are used to demonstrate understandings (Witzel, 2005). With the purpose of giving students a thorough understanding of math concepts, CRA instruction allows students to make associations from one stage of the process to the next. While CRA instruction can seem like an arduous task, teachers and parents, as primary instructors, do not need to purchase expensive, commercially produced manipulatives in order to impart quality CRA instruction. Rather, everyday objects found around an average classroom or household can be used as convenient and effective mathematical manipulatives. CRA instruction has been shown to benefit students in an inclusive setting, regardless of the individual ability, and it is probable that students with various levels of arithmetic understanding will increase their knowledge of mathematical concepts by way of CRA instruction.
Southern Early Childhood Association. PO Box 8109 Jacksonville, AR 72078. Tel: 501-221-1648. e-mail:; Web site: https://
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A