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ERIC Number: EJ1149809
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Aug
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1362-3613
Quantifying and Exploring Camouflaging in Men and Women with Autism
Lai, Meng-Chuan; Lombardo, Michael V.; Ruigrok, Amber N. V.; Chakrabarti, Bhismadev; Auyeung, Bonnie; Szatmari, Peter; Happé, Francesca; Baron-Cohen, Simon
Autism: The International Journal of Research and Practice, v21 n6 p690-702 Aug 2017
Autobiographical descriptions and clinician observations suggest that some individuals with autism, particularly females, "camouflage" their social communication difficulties, which may require considerable cognitive effort and lead to increased stress, anxiety and depression. Using data from 60 age- and IQ-matched men and women with autism (without intellectual disability), we operationalized camouflaging in adults with autism for the first time as the quantitative discrepancy between the person's "external" behavioural presentation in social-interpersonal contexts (measured by the Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule) and the person's "internal" status (dispositional traits measured by the Autism Spectrum Quotient and social cognitive capability measured by the "Reading the Mind in the Eyes" Test). We found that the operationalized camouflaging measure was not significantly correlated with age or IQ. On average, women with autism had higher camouflaging scores than men with autism (Cohen's d = 0.98), with substantial variability in both groups. Greater camouflaging was associated with more depressive symptoms in men and better signal-detection sensitivity in women with autism. The neuroanatomical association with camouflaging score was largely sex/gender-dependent and significant only in women: from reverse inference, the most correlated cognitive terms were about emotion and memory. The underlying constructs, measurement, mechanisms, consequences and heterogeneity of camouflaging in autism warrant further investigation.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: United Kingdom
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Autism Diagnostic Observation Schedule; Beck Anxiety Inventory; Beck Depression Inventory; Wechsler Intelligence Scales Short Forms
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A