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ERIC Number: EJ1149050
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Aug
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1059-8405
Milk Options Observation (MOO): A Mixed-Methods Study of Chocolate Milk Removal on Beverage Consumption and Student/Staff Behaviors in a Rural Elementary School
Davis, Melinda M.; Spurlock, Margaret; Ramsey, Katrina; Smith, Jamie; Beamer, Beth Ann; Aromaa, Susan; McGinnis, Paul B.
Journal of School Nursing, v33 n4 p285-298 Aug 2017
Providing flavored milk in school lunches is controversial, with conflicting evidence on its impact on nutritional intake versus added sugar consumption and excess weight gain. Nonindustry-sponsored studies using individual-level analyses are needed. Therefore, we conducted this mixed-methods study of flavored milk removal at a rural primary school between May and June 2012. We measured beverage selection/consumption pre- and post-chocolate milk removal and collected observation field notes. We used linear and logistic mixed models to assess beverage waste and identified themes in staff and student reactions. Our analysis of data from 315 unique students and 1,820 beverages choices indicated that average added sugar intake decreased by 2.8 g postremoval, while average reductions in calcium and protein consumption were negligible (12.2 mg and 0.3 g, respectively). Five thematic findings emerged, including concerns expressed by adult staff about student rebellion following removal, which did not come to fruition. Removing flavored milk from school-provided lunches may lower students' daily added sugar consumption without considerably decreasing calcium and protein intake and may promote healthy weight.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences (NCATS) (DHHS/NIH); Agency for Healthcare Research and Quality (AHRQ) (DHHS/PHS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Oregon
Grant or Contract Numbers: UL1TR000128; ACTRI0601; 1K12HS02298101