NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1148535
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Sep
Pages: 41
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1560-4292
Designing Crowdcritique Systems for Formative Feedback
Easterday, Matthew W.; Rees Lewis, Daniel; Gerber, Elizabeth M.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, v27 n3 p623-663 Sep 2017
Intelligent tutors based on expert systems often struggle to provide formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems where answers are unknown. Hybrid crowdsourcing systems that combine the intelligence of multiple novices in face-to-face settings might provide an alternate approach for providing intelligent formative feedback. The purpose of this study was to develop empirically grounded design principles for crowdcritique systems that provide intelligent formative feedback on complex, ill-defined problems. In this design research project, we iteratively developed and tested a crowdcritique system through 3 studies of 43 novice problem solvers in 3 formal and informal learning environments. We collected observations, interviews, and surveys and used a grounded theory approach to develop and test socio-technical design principles for crowdcritique systems. The project found that to provide formative feedback on ill-defined problems, crowdcritique systems should provide a combination of technical features including: quick invite tools; formative framing; a public, near-synchronous social media interface; critique scaffolds; "like" system; community hashtags; analysis tools and "to do" lists; along with social practices including: prep/write-first/write-last script and critique training. Such a system creates a dual-channel conversation that increases the volume of quality critique by grounding comments, scaffolding and recording critique, and reducing production blocking. Such a design provides the benefits of both face-to-face critique and computer-support in both formal and informal learning environments while reducing the orchestration burden on instructors.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Science Foundation (NSF)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: IIS1320693