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ERIC Number: EJ1148526
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Sep
Pages: 27
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1560-4292
Designing Grounded Feedback: Criteria for Using Linked Representations to Support Learning of Abstract Symbols
Wiese, Eliane S.; Koedinger, Kenneth R.
International Journal of Artificial Intelligence in Education, v27 n3 p448-474 Sep 2017
This paper proposes "grounded feedback" as a way to provide implicit verification when students are working with a novel representation. In grounded feedback, students' responses are in the target, to-be-learned representation, and those responses are reflected in a more-accessible linked representation that is intrinsic to the domain. By examining the accessible feedback representation, students can infer if their work with the novel representation is correct. This paper presents the criteria for grounded feedback, provides examples of systems that implement grounded feedback, contrasts grounded feedback with similar feedback types, and discusses the evidence for grounded feedback's effectiveness. Controlled experiments with random assignment that compare grounded feedback to other approaches are limited in number and scope (i.e., comparisons to explicit verification with and without text hints, linked representations, and no feedback). The two experiments we found with full implementation of grounded feedback and a sample size larger than 20 found robust learning benefits of grounded feedback over explicit verification feedback. These results are promising and indicate that grounded feedback warrants further investigation.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R305B090023; R305C100024