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ERIC Number: EJ1147948
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Sep
Pages: 10
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1043-4046
The Trilayer Approach of Teaching Physiology, Pathophysiology, and Pharmacology Concepts in a First-Year Pharmacy Course: The TLAT Model
Islam, Mohammed A.; Sabnis, Gauri; Farris, Fred
Advances in Physiology Education, v41 n3 p395-404 Sep 2017
This paper describes the development, implementation, and students' perceptions of a new trilayer approach of teaching (TLAT). The TLAT model involved blending lecture, in-class group activities, and out-of-class assignments on selected content areas and was implemented initially in a first-year integrated pharmacy course. Course contents were either delivered by traditional lectures or by the TLAT. A survey instrument was distributed by SurveyMonkey to determine students' perceptions of the TLAT model. Descriptive statistics were used for data analysis. Students' performance in a total of 225 examination and quiz questions was analyzed to evaluate whether the TLAT model improved students' learning. Students' (n = 98) performance scores for TLAT-based and lecture-based questions were 83.3 ± 10.2 and 79.5 ± 14.0, respectively (P < 0.05). Ninety-three percent of students believed that in-class group activities enhanced conceptual understanding of course materials, helped them take responsibility of their own learning, and enhanced their overall learning experiences. More than 80% of respondents felt that solving cases and developing concept maps helped them sharpen creative and critical thinking skills. In addition, 90% of the respondents indicated that the homework throughout the semester helped them stay up to date and focused with the progress of the course. The use of the TLAT model led to an improvement in student learning of complex concepts. Moreover, the results suggest that this model improves students' self-reliance and attitudes toward learning. Our findings should serve as an impetus for inclusion of diverse active learning strategies in pharmacy education.
American Physiological Society. 9650 Rockville Pike, Bethesda, MD 20814-3991. Tel: 301-634-7164; Fax: 301-634-7241; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Tests/Questionnaires; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: California (Los Angeles)
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A