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ERIC Number: EJ1146526
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Jul
Pages: 14
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-0663
Can Collaborative Learning Improve the Effectiveness of Worked Examples in Learning Mathematics?
Retnowati, Endah; Ayres, Paul; Sweller, John
Journal of Educational Psychology, v109 n5 p666-679 Jul 2017
Worked examples and collaborative learning have both been shown to facilitate learning. However, the testing of both strategies almost exclusively has been conducted independently of each other. The main aim of the current study was to examine interactions between these 2 strategies. Two experiments (N = 182 and N = 122) were conducted with Grade-7 Indonesian students, comparing learning to solve algebra problems, with higher and lower levels of complexity, collaboratively or individually. Results from both experiments indicated that individual learning was superior to collaborative learning when using worked examples. In contrast, in Experiment 2, when learning from problem solving using problem-solving search, collaboration was more effective than individual learning. However, again in Experiment 2, studying worked examples was overall superior to learning from solving problems, particularly for more complex problems. It can be concluded that while collaboration could be beneficial when learning under problem solving conditions, it may be counterproductive when studying worked examples.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 7; Junior High Schools; Middle Schools; Elementary Education; Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Indonesia
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A