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ERIC Number: EJ1144912
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 12
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1096-2409
Gender and Ethnic Bias in Letters of Recommendation: Considerations for School Counselors
Akos, Patrick; Kretchmar, Jennifer
Professional School Counseling, v20 n1 p102-113 2016-2017
School counselors write letters of recommendation for students pursuing postsecondary education and help teachers and staff prepare for this task. Although letters of recommendation may impact admission and scholarship opportunities, research about equity and bias in letters is minimal as compared to standardized tests, teacher expectations, and grading practices. In this study, researchers analyzed letters of recommendation for evidence of gender and racial bias. Results demonstrate small but significant differences by gender and race in the average length of letters as well as the types of language used to describe students. This article discusses implications for school counselors.
American School Counselor Association. 1101 King Street Suite 625, Alexandria, VA 22314. Tel: 703-683-2722; Fax: 703-683-1619; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: High Schools; Secondary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A