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ERIC Number: EJ1144722
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 22
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0022-2194
Does Growth in the Executive System of Working Memory Underlie Growth in Literacy for Bilingual Children with and without Reading Disabilities?
Swanson, H. Lee; Orosco, Michael J.; Kudo, Milagros
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v50 n4 p386-407 Jul-Aug 2017
This cohort-sequential study explored the components of working memory (WM) that underlie second language (L2) reading growth in 450 children at risk and not at risk for reading disabilities (RD) whose first language is Spanish. English language learners designated as balanced and nonbalanced bilinguals with and without risk for RD in Grades 1, 2, and 3 at Wave 1 were administered a battery of cognitive (short-term memory, WM, naming speed, and inhibition), vocabulary, and reading measures in Spanish and English. These same measures were administered 1 and 2 years later. Two important findings occurred: First, growth in the WM executive component was significantly related to growth in English word identification and passage comprehension when competing measures (phonological processing, naming speed, inhibition, and fluid intelligence) were entered into the multilevel growth model. Second, children defined as at risk for RD in Wave 1 had lower intercepts than children not at risk at Wave 3 across several measures of cognition, language, and achievement. However, except on measures of the executive component of WM, no significant group differences in linear growth emerged. These findings suggest that growth in L2 reading was tied to growth in the executive system of WM.
SAGE Publications and Hammill Institute on Disabilities. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 1; Primary Education; Early Childhood Education; Grade 2; Grade 3
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Raven Progressive Matrices; Wide Range Achievement Test; Woodcock Munoz Language Survey; Peabody Picture Vocabulary Test; Illinois Test of Psycholinguistic Abilities; Expressive One Word Picture Vocabulary Test
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324A090092