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ERIC Number: EJ1144532
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013
Pages: 17
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-1535-0584
Caught between Catholic and Government Traditions: Americanization and Assimilation at St. Joseph's Indian Normal School
Weber, Carolyn A.
American Educational History Journal, v40 n1 p75-91 2013
Millions visited the World's Columbian Exhibition in Chicago between May and October, 1893. World's fairs and exhibitions had grown and developed grander purposes since the first one in London in 1851: "Beginning as large international industrial displays and showcases for the new inventions and discoveries of science and technology, they quickly became committed to the much more ambitious and comprehensive aim of revealing culture in all its dimensions" (Badger 1979). Chicago's Exhibition embraced the idea of revealing cultures, including several showcases deemed "less-civilized," as Native Americans, Egyptians, and Africans were shown in a theatrical exposition. The examples of Native "savagery" showed a way of life slowly disappearing. While these exhibits intended to show the "savagery" of the American Indians, a nearby exhibit revealed to crowds of Americans the possibility that American Indians could be "civilized." An exhibition of Native American children attempted to demonstrate what many believed at the time was the best way to Americanize the Indians: education. For two weeks in June 1893, students from St. Joseph's Indian Normal School demonstrated how Native American children were being pressured to abandon their cultures and adopt a new one. Both the children's and adults' exhibits showed the dominance of one race over another, but through vastly different methods. Displaying student performances, as well as examples of their work, revealed the development of St. Joseph's students' Americanization and assimilation. This article contextualizes St. Joseph's Indian Normal School in the larger religious debate within Indian education in the late-nineteenth century and focuses on how the school was unique in emulating government and Catholic schools in both policy and curriculum.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Indiana
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A