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ERIC Number: EJ1142397
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 16
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0218-8791
Frictions That Activate Change: Dynamics of Global to Local Non-Governmental Organizations for Female Education and Empowerment in China, India, and Pakistan
Seeberg, Vilma; Baily, Supriya; Khan, Asima; Ross, Heidi; Wang, Yimin; Shah, Payal; Wang, Lei
Asia Pacific Journal of Education, v37 n2 p232-247 2017
This article examines how non-governmental organizations create resources and spaces for girls and women's education and empowerment in China, India and Pakistan--in the context of global expectations and local state relations as well as cultural norms. We examine the dynamics that foster female empowerment associated with educational attainment. Analysis showed that the five NGO's responses to enabling and constraining local needs and demands gave rise to productive friction that activated positive development. We conclude that engaging local individuals as managers, teachers or facilitators who can negotiate with international actors and with the state is an effective foundation for maintaining a balance between being accountable to local contingencies and norms and to global social justice principles of the projects. These models indicated that "effective scale" might better be defined as a collaboration between the local and global, rather than "scaling up" in size. International NGO partnerships with several of state organizations and local leadership can be a catalyst for fundamental change, subject to dynamic engagement with productive friction that activates educational empowerment and social change.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: China; India; Pakistan
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A