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ERIC Number: EJ1141784
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2014-Dec
Pages: 18
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0279-6015
Utility of Number and Type of Office Discipline Referrals in Predicting Chronic Problem Behavior in Middle School
Predy, Larissa; McIntosh, Kent; Frank, Jennifer L.
School Psychology Review, v43 n4 p472-489 Dec 2014
This study examined the technical adequacy of office discipline referrals (ODRs) received early in the school year for predicting total ODRs received by the end of the year. The sample included 401,852 students from 593 public middle schools (serving Grades 6 to 8) in the United States in the 2009-2010 school year. The results showed that ODRs received in September, October, and November were statistically significant predictors of total ODRs and that the inclusion of types of referrals (especially for defiance) significantly improved prediction of total ODRs. These results are discussed regarding the utility of ODRs for screening and patterns of problem behavior likely to predict chronic discipline problems in middle schools.
National Association of School Psychologists. 4340 East West Highway Suite 402, Bethesda, MD 20814. Tel: 301-657-0270; Fax: 301-657-0275; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools; Grade 6; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education; Grade 7; Grade 8
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Office of Special Education Programs (ED/OSERS)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: H326S130004