ERIC Number: EJ1139505
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Abstractor: As Provided
Reference Count: 28
Eye Movements and Articulations during a Letter Naming Speed Task: Children with and without Dyslexia
Al Dahhan, Noor Z.; Kirby, John R.; Brien, Donald C.; Munoz, Douglas P.
Journal of Learning Disabilities, v50 n3 p275-285 May-Jun 2017
Naming speed (NS) refers to how quickly and accurately participants name a set of familiar stimuli (e.g., letters). NS is an established predictor of reading ability, but controversy remains over why it is related to reading. We used three techniques (stimulus manipulations to emphasize phonological and/or visual aspects, decomposition of NS times into pause and articulation components, and analysis of eye movements during task performance) with three groups of participants (children with dyslexia, ages 9-10; chronological-age [CA] controls, ages 9-10; reading-level [RL] controls, ages 6-7) to examine NS and the NS-reading relationship. Results indicated (a) for all groups, increasing visual similarity of the letters decreased letter naming efficiency and increased naming errors, saccades, regressions (rapid eye movements back to letters already fixated), pause times, and fixation durations; (b) children with dyslexia performed like RL controls and were less efficient, had longer articulation times, pause times, fixation durations, and made more errors and regressions than CA controls; and (c) pause time and fixation duration were the most powerful predictors of reading. We conclude that NS is related to reading via fixation durations and pause times: Longer fixation durations and pause times reflect the greater amount of time needed to acquire visual/orthographic information from stimuli and prepare the correct response.
Descriptors: Dyslexia, Comparative Analysis, Eye Movements, Visual Stimuli, Naming, Predictor Variables, Reading Skills, Phonology, Visual Perception, Time, Children, Error Patterns, Foreign Countries, Hypothesis Testing, Decoding (Reading), Word Recognition, Intelligence Tests, Reading Tests
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
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Identifiers - Location: Canada
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: Woodcock Reading Mastery Test