NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1135803
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-May
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0895-9048
Mathematical Communication in State Standards before the Common Core
Kosko, Karl Wesley; Gao, Yang
Educational Policy, v31 n3 p275-302 May 2017
Mathematical communication has been an important feature of standards documents since National Council of Teachers of Mathematics' (NCTM) (1989) "Curriculum and Evaluation Standards." Such an emphasis has influenced content standards of states from then to present. This study examined how effective the prevalence of various forms of mathematical communication in 2009 state standards documents was in regard to National Assessment of Educational Progress (NAEP) 2009 achievement scores for Grade 4. Analysis suggests mixed results with potential implications as states move toward fully implementing the Common Core State Standards in Mathematics. Specifically, although including language requiring mathematical descriptions from students had a positive effect on Grade 4 NAEP 2009 achievement scores, including language requiring rationales and justifications was not found to have a statistically significant effect.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 4; Intermediate Grades; Elementary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Assessments and Surveys: National Assessment of Educational Progress
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A