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ERIC Number: EJ1135777
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2015
Pages: 28
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-2161-7252
Ottoman-American Relations, Francis Hopkins Smith and Armenian Issue
Akalin, Berrin
Journal of International Education and Leadership, v5 n1 Spr 2015
The Ottoman-American relations, started upon arrival of American merchant ships to Izmir port in 1797, gained a new dimension by signing a treaty of commerce between two states in 1830 and David Porter was assigned as an acting ambassador and moved from Algeria to Istanbul in 1831. Ottoman state gave the privileged country status to America through this treaty and vested the right to it to take advantages of all privileges. Thus, Americans came into contact with Armenians; started to give the citizenship right to them as well as taking them under its protection. The concept, "foreigner" in Ottoman, was not the persons who were foreigner to the society, but were the guests or escrowed persons. Foreigners visited the Ottoman State either as tourists or for the purposes of business or performing a mission. There were many foreigners, especially in the port cities and the state was charged to provide their security of lives and properties. In this aspect, the foreigners were never tried wherever they were in the Ottoman State and were not disrespected. The legal status of foreigners was determined by the state with the special treaties, and the "Law of foreigners" became a current issue with capitulations in Ottomans for the first time and as a result of this, the financial, administrative and economic privileges granted had become basis for regulations related to the foreigners for a long time. Accordingly, the first informal contacts of America, having the privileged country status in Ottoman territory, began with missionary activities. The first arrival date of American Evangelical missioners to the Ottoman Empire was 1820. This date is also related to the development of missionary movement in America. The Evangelists in the United States of America were organized under American Board of Commissioners for Foreign Missions, briefly known as ABCFM in order to spread this sect after Evangelist movement, defined as "the Great Awakening" by early 19th century. Board decided to start a missionary movement toward Armenians in the Ottoman Armenians in 1829 and this task was assigned to William Goodell in 1831. Since an official treaty was not concluded between the Ottoman Empire and American Government until 1830, those missioners were charged in the security of British Consulate. Francis Hopkinson Smith, who was born in 1838, American Baltimore Maryland as the sixth generation grandson of a wealthy family in London, was the author, painter, businessman and engineer. The author, who was an incorrigible traveler at the same time, came to Istanbul where first, he loved by imagining it, then fell in love upon knowing it with a special permission between 1895 and 1897 in order to paint. The tension between Ottoman ruling and Armenians during the years, when Hopkinson Smith was in the country where he caught the opportunity to closely observe the political conditions of Empire and current tensions experienced, had reached to a serious dimensions. The artist, who was on the Ottoman side contrary to the protective attitude and supportive political tendency of his country against Armenians, published many assays related to the Ottoman's rightfulness in the American newspapers. In this article, it will be told how the Ottoman-American relations developed from the informal missionary activities, effects of such activities on Armenians and the views of Francis Hopkinson Smith related to Armenian issues via his assays published in the American newspapers during the years when the issues emerged.
Journal of International Education and Leadership. 432 Rittiman Road, San Antonio, Texas 78209. Tel: 210-519-9870; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Descriptive
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Ottoman Empire; United States
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A