NotesFAQContact Us
Search Tips
Peer reviewed Peer reviewed
Direct linkDirect link
ERIC Number: EJ1135446
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Apr
Pages: 23
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0020-4277
Strategies to Reduce the Negative Effects of Spoken Explanatory Text on Integrated Tasks
Singh, Anne-Marie; Marcus, Nadine; Ayres, Paul
Instructional Science: An International Journal of the Learning Sciences, v45 n2 p239-261 Apr 2017
Two experiments involving 125 grade-10 students learning about commerce investigated strategies to overcome the transient information effect caused by explanatory spoken text. The transient information effect occurs when learning is reduced as a result of information disappearing before the learner has time to adequately process it, or link it with new information. Spoken text, unless recorded or repeated in some fashion, is fleeting in nature and can be a major cause of transiency. The three strategies investigated, all theoretically expected to enhance learning, were: (a) replacing lengthy spoken text with written text (Experiments 1 and 2), (b) replacing lengthy continuous text with segmented text (Experiment 1), and (c) adding a diagram to lengthy spoken text (Experiment 2). In both experiments on tasks that required information to be integrated across segments, written text was found to be superior to spoken text. In Experiment 1 the expected advantage of segmented text in reducing transitory effects was not found. Compared with written continuous text the segmented spoken text strategy was inferior. Experiment 2 found that adding a diagram to spoken text was an advantage compared to spoken text alone consistent with a multimedia effect. Overall, the results suggest that spoken text is a cause of the transient information effect, which can be best avoided by substituting written text for spoken text on tasks that require integration of information.
Springer. 233 Spring Street, New York, NY 10013. Tel: 800-777-4643; Tel: 212-460-1500; Fax: 212-348-4505; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Grade 10; Secondary Education; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A