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ERIC Number: EJ1134358
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Mar
Pages: 13
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-1045-3830
Dependability of Data Derived from Time Sampling Methods with Multiple Observation Targets
Johnson, Austin H.; Chafouleas, Sandra M.; Briesch, Amy M.
School Psychology Quarterly, v32 n1 p22-34 Mar 2017
In this study, generalizability theory was used to examine the extent to which (a) time-sampling methodology, (b) number of simultaneous behavior targets, and (c) individual raters influenced variance in ratings of academic engagement for an elementary-aged student. Ten graduate-student raters, with an average of 7.20 hr of previous training in systematic direct observation and 58.20 hr of previous direct observation experience, scored 6 videos of student behavior using 12 different time-sampling protocols. Five videos were submitted for analysis, and results for observations using momentary time-sampling and whole-interval recording suggested that the majority of variance was attributable to the rating occasion, although results for partial-interval recording generally demonstrated large residual components comparable with those seen in prior research. Dependability coefficients were above .80 when averaging across 1 to 2 raters using momentary time-sampling, and 2 to 3 raters using whole-interval recording. Ratings derived from partial-interval recording needed to be averaged over 3 to 7 raters to demonstrate dependability coefficients above 0.80.
American Psychological Association. Journals Department, 750 First Street NE, Washington, DC 20002. Tel: 800-374-2721; Tel: 202-336-5510; Fax: 202-336-5502; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: Institute of Education Sciences (ED)
Authoring Institution: N/A
IES Funded: Yes
Grant or Contract Numbers: R324A110017