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ERIC Number: EJ1130031
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2011-Jul
Pages: 25
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0215-773X
3-Ls: A Model for Teaching Young Learners
Diem, Chuzaimah Dahlan
TEFLIN Journal: A publication on the teaching and learning of English, v22 n2 p125-149 Jul 2011
The fact that EFL literacy in Indonesia is still low led me to conduct this study to cultivate reading habits and increase literacy skills of young learners. Using the 3-Ls--libraries, literature, and literacy--as an instructional model, the study involved five methods: Informational Text Structures; Online Resources; Partnership with Librarians; Big6; and Literature Circles. The sample consisted of 200 fifth graders divided equally into five groups, each of which was also divided into experimental and control groups. Each of the experimental groups was taught for three months using one method. All the students in both groups were given English tests and a questionnaire before and after the experiment. The results showed that the experimental groups outperformed the control groups with a significant mean difference of 21.73 on literacy skills and 10.15 on reading habits. Using regression analysis, it was also found that 3-Ls as a whole had given a significant contribution to both students' reading habits (R[superscript 2] 0,793) and literacy skills (R[superscript 2] 0,943) with the highest percentage contributed by every method was reading skill. However, in spite of demonstrating significant effects on students' literacy, these methods still did not bring the students' literacy to an acceptable level. A factor that might contribute to the low achievement of their English literacy was that the 3-Ls model requires optimal facilities.
Association for the Teaching of English as a Foreign Language in Indonesia (TEFLIN). Malang, East Java, 65145, Indonesia. TEFLIN Publication Division, Department of English, Faculty of Letters, Universitas Negeri Malang, Jalan Semarang 5, Tel: +62-341-570566; Fax: +62-341-567475; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Education; Grade 5; Intermediate Grades; Middle Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Indonesia
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A