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ERIC Number: EJ1129594
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 11
Abstractor: ERIC
ISSN: ISSN-0040-0599
Using the CRA-I Strategy to Develop Conceptual and Procedural Knowledge of Quadratic Expressions
Strickland, Tricia K.
TEACHING Exceptional Children, v49 n2 p115-125 Nov-Dec 2016
Recent research has explored the efficacy of the CRA-I (concrete-representational-abstract) strategy with students with disabilities (Strickland & Maccini, 2012, 2013). The CRA-I strategy is a promising practice that special educators have used to teach algebra to students with high-incidence disabilities. The CRA-I strategy is a modification of the CRA graduated instructional sequence, and it involves the simultaneous presentation of the algebra content through concrete manipulatives, sketches of the concrete manipulatives, and abstract notation. These multiple representations help students develop both conceptual and procedural knowledge (Hudson & Miller, 2006). Simultaneous presentation of the concrete, representational, and abstract depictions may provide teachers with an effective method for progressing through the curriculum in a timely fashion while still providing effective instruction. In addition, incorporating the abstract notation upon introducing an algebraic topic may assist in the transition from concrete manipulatives to abstract notation--a transition that is often very challenging for students. The goal of the CRA-I strategy is for students to solve algebraic problems using abstract notation only, a concept supported by Gersten et al. (2009), who recommended that the use of manipulatives with older students be expeditious and used for just a short period before transitioning to abstract notation only.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Secondary Education; Grade 11; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A