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ERIC Number: EJ1129435
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017-Mar
Pages: 27
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-0044-118X
The Code of Silence in Schools: An Assessment of a Socio-Ecological Model of Youth's Willingness to Report School Misbehavior
Slocum, Lee Ann; Esbensen, Finn-Aage; Taylor, Terrance J.
Youth & Society, v49 n2 p123-149 Mar 2017
Socio-ecological models of victimization reporting incorporate normative constraints and instrumental considerations at the individual and contextual levels. Drawing on this model, we explore factors related to students' willingness to report problem behaviors that they might observe in school. Data obtained from student and teacher/administrator surveys and administrative data are used to explore these relationships. We find that individual-level factors are the primary determinants of reporting attitudes, but school context is also important. Students are more willing to report misbehavior in schools with democratic authority structures and consistent enforcement of school rules. Attitudes toward reporting are less favorable when the school culture is supportive of a street code, and the effect of street code culture is fully explained by students' personal norms and experiences. We also find evidence that personal adherence to a street code moderates the effect of school context on reporting attitudes. Implications for theory and practice are discussed.
SAGE Publications. 2455 Teller Road, Thousand Oaks, CA 91320. Tel: 800-818-7243; Tel: 805-499-9774; Fax: 800-583-2665; e-mail:; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Evaluative
Education Level: Middle Schools; Secondary Education; Junior High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: National Institute of Justice (NIJ)
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: New Mexico (Albuquerque); Illinois (Chicago); Texas (Dallas); Texas (Fort Worth); Colorado; Tennessee (Nashville); Pennsylvania (Philadelphia); Oregon (Portland)
Grant or Contract Numbers: 2006JVFX0011