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ERIC Number: EJ1128220
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2013-Jul
Pages: 9
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-2254-7339
A Typology of Education Ballot Issues: 1906 to 2009
Carpenter, Dick M., II; Clouse, Wendi
Journal of New Approaches in Educational Research, v2 n2 p54-62 Jul 2013
Almost half of the states in the United States allow citizens to make educational policy through ballot issues, a mechanism of direct democracy. Yet, no study has attempted analyze the educational ballot issue landscape, meaning little systematic attention has been paid to this important and increasingly influential form of educational policy making. This study identifies and classifies the types of state ballot issues considered by voters in the 24 states that allow for the creation of educational policy through direct democracy. Between 1906 and 2009, citizens voted on 206 education-related ballot issues. Among these, six types emerged: curriculum and instruction, equity, fiscal, infrastructure, morality, and reform. Ballot issues have been used most often for fiscal issues, followed by infrastructure, reform, morality, and curriculum and instruction. Across all types of ballot issues, voters rejected education initiatives by a wide margin: A little more than 66% failed at the ballot box. Nevertheless, it remains a popular method of grassroots educational policymaking--2000 to 2009 saw the most frequent consideration of education ballot issues.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Elementary Secondary Education
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A