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ERIC Number: EJ1127629
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2016
Pages: 31
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: ISSN-2159-0281
Rubrics--Sharing the Rules of the Game
Balch, David; Blanck, Robert; Balch, David Howard
Journal of Instructional Research, v5 p19-49 2016
The topic and purpose of this paper is to explore within the literature the theoretical foundations and applications of rubrics in the process of evaluation of retained learning and mastery of knowledge within the educational environment. The first step of the research was to assemble a definition of the term rubric from a historical perspective. From the literature, a summary of the process of creating rubrics and a listing of the types or variations of rubric formats is presented. The general types of rubrics include Holistic, Analytic, Developmental (which is considered a subset of the Analytic Rubric) and Single-Point Rubrics are described. A checklist for measuring qualities of a good rubric is provided. A discussion of the incorporation of the educational goals, objectives and learning outcomes of rubrics is reviewed. Over time, recommendations for modification and adapting to different instructional approaches has emerged within the literature and are proposed as the theoretical foundations. The theoretical foundations included in the rubric styles were: Bloom's Taxonomy, Costa's Three Levels (which are based upon the foundation of Bloom's Taxonomy) and a modification of Kirkpatrick's Four Levels. The Developmental Rubric is presented with several theories from authors in the field of human development, including; Jean Piaget, Lawrence Kohlberg, Erik Erikson, Lev Vygotsky and John Dewey. The outcome of this literature research for the educator is a set of working examples illustrating the variations or adaptations of rubric styles. In the final analysis, the simplicity and complexity of the rubric design and its application is dependent upon the educator and the learning environment.
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Information Analyses; Reports - Research
Education Level: N/A
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
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