ERIC Number: EJ1126289
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Abstractor: As Provided
English-Medium Instruction in Japanese Universities: Policy Implementation and Constraints
Chin Leong, Patrick N. G.
Current Issues in Language Planning, v18 n1 p57-67 2017
English-medium instruction (EMI) is gaining momentum in Japan as politicians constantly highlight the need for Japanese universities to cultivate students with English skills to participate in the global market. Adopting a framework on the failure of policy implementation [Schiffman, H. (2007). Tamil language policy in Singapore. The role of implementation. In V. Vasih, S. Gopinathan, & Y. Liu (Eds.), "Language, capital and culture" (pp. 209-226). Bristol: Sense], micro language planning [Liddicoat, A., & Baldauf, R. (2008). "Language planning in local contexts." Clevedon: Multilingual Matters; Chua, C. S. K., & Baldauf, R. B., Jr. (2011). Micro language planning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), "Handbook of research in second language teaching and learning" (Vol. 2, pp. 936-951). New York, NY: Routledge] and micro-level actors in language planning [Zhao, S. (2011). Actors in language planning. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), "Handbook of second language research teaching and learning" (Vol. 2, pp. 905-923). New York, NY: Routledge], this paper explores the efforts and constraints experienced in implementing EMI programmes in Japanese universities. Data collection is based on a semi-structured interview with Deans and directors of language centre in four Japanese universities. The results of the study showed a range of activities undertaken by actors in language planning in implementing EMI programmes: managing the English programme, creating an organized teaching schedule, revamping the entrance examination, designing placement test, dealing with top-level management and recruiting teachers. However, several major factors hindered the implementation efforts of actors in EMI policy implementation: lack of trained teachers, students' English proficiency and motivation in learning English, institutional culture, the lack of an English-speaking environment and lack of understanding of EMI by top-level management. There is a need for micro language policy actors to consider carefully the sacrifice and costs involved before jumping into the EMI bandwagon.
Descriptors: English (Second Language), Second Language Learning, Language of Instruction, Language Planning, Universities, Educational Policy, Foreign Countries, Semi Structured Interviews, Deans, Administrator Attitudes, Student Placement, Language Tests, Program Administration, Teacher Recruitment, Language Proficiency, Learning Motivation, Organizational Culture, Costs
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Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Higher Education; Postsecondary Education
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Japan
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A