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ERIC Number: EJ1125961
Record Type: Journal
Publication Date: 2017
Pages: 15
Abstractor: As Provided
ISSN: EISSN-1436-4522
Using "First Principles of Instruction" to Design Secondary School Mathematics Flipped Classroom: The Findings of Two Exploratory Studies
Lo, Chung Kwan; Hew, Khe Foon
Educational Technology & Society, v20 n1 p222-236 2017
Flipping the classroom is a current pedagogical innovation in many schools and universities. Although interest in flipped classroom (or Inverted Classroom) continues to grow, its implementation so far has been driven more by teachers' intuitive beliefs, rather than empirically-based principles. Many studies merely replace in-class instructions with videos and use class time for group discussions. But what instructional design framework should we use in planning the overall flipped classroom approach? This paper attempts to answer this question through two exploratory studies conducted in a Hong Kong secondary school. In Study 1, a flipped classroom Mathematics remedial approach was offered for underperforming students (n = 13) in Form 6 (Grade 12). In Study 2, high ability students (n = 24) in Form 6 participated in another flipped classroom Mathematics training approach. Both flipped classroom approaches utilized the "First Principles of Instruction" design theory. Paired "t"-test results indicated significant learning gains in both groups of students. Based on the suggestions of students and teacher as well as the existing literature, several recommendations for course planning, out-of-class learning, and in-class learning of flipped classroom are proposed.
International Forum of Educational Technology & Society. Athabasca University, School of Computing & Information Systems, 1 University Drive, Athabasca, AB T9S 3A3, Canada. Tel: 780-675-6812; Fax: 780-675-6973; Web site:
Publication Type: Journal Articles; Reports - Research
Education Level: Secondary Education; Grade 12; High Schools
Audience: N/A
Language: English
Sponsor: N/A
Authoring Institution: N/A
Identifiers - Location: Hong Kong
Grant or Contract Numbers: N/A